Introduction The aim of this assignment is to analyze and review the selected article in terms of strengths and limitation to show an understanding of the research process. A critique is a systematic evaluation of a research strength and limitations (Polit & Beck, 2014). This paper is a critique of an article “Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDSrelated conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada” published SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS in 2016 by Bird, Lemstra, Rogers, and Moraros. Title & Author: The researcher’s credentials are provided, and all of which have postgraduate degrees and three of which have doctorates. They all work as a professor in the school of public health at the University of Saskatchewan. This means that they have the research capabilities and know-how to undertake such study. The title should be 10 to 15 words long and should clearly describe the reader’s intent for the review (Coughlan et al., 2007). However, the title of the article is significantly longer than what is suggested. Literature Review: Literature review should help to identify any gaps in the literature relating to the problem and to suggest how those gaps might be filled (Coughlan et al., 2007).In this article, the authors did not mention the knowledge gaps i.e. the connection between problem and the previous studies is not clearly stated. The article was published in 2016, but the studies used in are from 1992-2016, preferably it should be within five years of research study (Coughlan et al., 2007). The sources used in the articles are clearly and completely cited by the authors in references section in alphabetical order. Sample and Sample Size: Best possible sampling design should be used to enhance the sample’s representativeness and reduce sample biasness, adequate and a power analysis should be used to estimate sample size needs (Polit and Beck, 2014). The researchers Bird, Lemstra, Rogers, & Moraros, (2016) clearly define the target group and the parameters have been used to include when choosing the sample (Coughlan, et al., 2007). Throughout this study, 340 STWs at risk for contracting HIV were recruited in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan to participate via selective sampling (Bird et al., 2016, p.154). Just adults 18 years of age and over who gave written and informed consent were permitted to participate in this study (Bird et al., 2016, p.154) Ethical Consideration: Approval must be issued by ethical committees or institutional review boards before research can be carried out (Coughlan, et al., 2007). In the method section under the subheading “study design & participants”, it says that ethics approval from the University of Saskatchewan Behavioral Research Ethics was obtained and both written and informed consent was obtained from the participants, both of which reflect strong ethical consideration. However, the privacy and confidentiality concerns are not explicitly stated in the article. Study Design: Polit & Beck (2014) recommends that the method clearly shows the research methodology to be used and asks whether the method is suitable to the research question and if the strength and weakness of the methodology are mentioned. In reviewing the methodology section under the subheading “the study design & participants” in first line, the text clearly pointed out that the article is of quantitative cross-sectional descriptive approach using targeted sampling method. The researchers define the respondent characteristics using the closeended questions and they used the statistical approach for data analysis. Both demographic and socioeconomic questions were asked to the participants (Bhat, 2018). All these features indicate that the design used in the article is descriptive in nature. Throughout the study, researchers specifically identified the target population who were “sex trade workers”. 340 STW who are at risk for contracting HIV were recruited with an inclusion criteria of adult 18 years of age or over and the method used was convenience sampling (Bird et al., 2016, p.154). Thus, the sample size and sampling method is clearly stated in the article by researchers. However, the sample process is not described in much detail and doesn’t give the reader any idea of how the data was collected, who was recording it and analyzing it. Another limitation of this study is that the sample size is relatively low for population in Saskatoon. Data Collection: Questionnaires are the most widely used instruments for collecting data and consist primarily of closed questions with a choice of fixed answers (Polit & Beck, 2014). The authors asked , two close ended questions to define and identify current STW and 28 questions from the Health and Relationships Survey and AIDS Preventive Behavior, were asked to assess the HIV/ AIDS- related knowledge of the participants (Bird et al., 2016, p.154). Moreover, Risk Behaviors Assessment Questionnaire created by National Institute on Drug Abuse were used to collect the demographic and socio-economic information of the participants but didn’t mention the number of questions asked. The authors didn’t note whether they asked these questions orally or in written. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the language used to ask questions was comprehensible to all participants or not as it is not explicitly stated in the article. The validity of the tool and the reliability of the study is provided by the author such as “the spearman correlations for the two questions were r =072 and r =.78 (Bird et al.,2016, p.154) “under the subheading “survey tools” mentioned in last line. “The survey’s reliability in assessing the participants’ self-reported status was found adequate (Kappa coefficients =.78 to 1.00) (Bird et al.,2016, p.154)”.
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