The American population is made of different communities. These communities reflect different origins and characteristics. The Hispanic group comprises one of the major groups within the American region. It makes up 17% of the entire American population. The Hispanic community is a subject of several health factors and indicators. These factors influence the morbidity and mortality of the members of the community. Characteristics The Hispanic community is made up of individuals whose origins can be traced back to Hispanic speaking communities. They originated from Mexico, Puerto, Spain, Argentina Uruguay among many other Latin countries. Nonetheless, the majority of Hispanics in the US originated from Mexico. It is the second largest ethnic group after the white community in America. The Latino culture is a mixture of different ancestries and individual member cultural practices. However, all the members share linguistic similarities. The major language among the members of the Hispanic communities is Spanish. Essentially, other than the Native Americans, the Hispanic community comprise the oldest community to occupy what is currently known as the United States of America. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] Demographics The Hispanic community makes up 17.4% of the total American population. There are more than 55 million individuals of the Hispanic heritage in America (Krogstad & Lopez, 2015). The White American population in the US is the only community that has more members in the US than the Hispanics. Nonetheless, the community is still considered a minority group in the United States of America. Between the years 2013 and 2014, there was a 2.1% population increase in the American Hispanic communities (Krogstad & Lopez, 2015). Nonetheless, this growth rate pales in comparison to previous trends. Between the years 1995 to 2000, the annual growth within the Hispanic community stood at 4.8% (Krogstad & Lopez, 2015). The reduced rate of population is a consequence of enhanced uptake of formal education in the region. Furthermore, it is a culmination of the reduced immigration into America by Hispanic members. The majority of the Hispanic community resides in the California State. Other States with high numbers of Hispanics include Texas and Florida. The median age for the members of the Hispanic community stood at 29 by 2014 (Krogstad & Lopez, 2015). Health Indicators in the Hispanic Community Health in society is determined by the rates of morbidity and mortality. Morbidity is a term that is often employed to determine the rates of recurrence of a particular disease within a specified community in a given duration of time. Alternatively, mortality rates refer to occurrences of death within a particular community. Morbidity and mortality are health components which are influenced by particular socioeconomic and health challenges in the society. The Hispanic community in America has been the subject of increased morbidity and mortality. Increased morbidity in the Hispanic community is caused by several factors. These include low levels of education, poverty, discrimination, increased barriers to healthcare and the importation of infectious diseases from mother country (Sumaya, 1991). All these allow for the persistent rotation of a particular disease within the given community. Some of the causes of mortality in the Hispanic community include the heart disease, AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer, stroke, diabetes and the liver disease. These lead to increased number of deaths in Hispanic communities (Iannotta, 2002). The factors limit the life expectancy of the members of the subject community. Consequently, members of the current Hispanic community project a reduced life expectancy than was the same a few years ago. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.] Causes of Morbidity in the Hispanic Community There are several major causes of morbidity in the Hispanic community. To begin with, the majority of the members of the Hispanic community are disproportionately affected by poverty. According to Lopez and Velasco (2011), in the year 2010, there were 6.1 million Hispanic children living in poverty. Essentially, poverty prevents the Hispanic members from accessing the appropriate medical interventions. Many of these members, given their strained financial circumstances, are not covered by health insurance. Insurance covers are subject to premiums. Therefore, since the majority of the Hispanic community cannot sustain these payment, they are often locked out of insurance plans. Furthermore, Hispanics often work for employers who do not extend them coverage in case of injuries sustained in the working environment. Consequently, they do not access the succinct care that would serve to preempt the recurrence of the particular disease in the future. Socially, the social beliefs on health among Hispanics leads to increased morbidity in the community. All cultures have systems of health beliefs. Cultures extend different responses to diseases, treatment processes and the health care providers. This may serve to improve or reduce morbidity in the society. Hispanics are a closely-knitted unit. They share distinct cultural beliefs on health which negatively influences the rates of morbidity in the society (Iannotta, 2002). To begin with, the Hispanic culture reinforces friendliness above professionalism. Thus, in the event that the examiner is brusque and impersonal, members of the Hispanic community often tend to disengage themselves from the health care interventions. Likewise, family care in the Hispanic culture prevails that sick individuals in the society should be treated by family members. Thus, many of the members of this community tend to engage the health counsel of family members more than healthcare professionals. This increases rates of morbidity given that the family members may lack the skills and knowledge required to overcome the health concern. Language barrier also provides a challenge to many members of the Hispanic communities. Language barrier hampers communication. Miscommunication results in altercations between the patients and the health care providers. This discourages the Hispanic members from seeking hospital intervention. Miscommunication leads to negative perceptions about the health care services (Iannotta, 2002). Thus, fewer and fewer people would be willing to access medical care. The levels of education in Hispanic communities remains relatively low. Compared to other communities in America, the Hispanic community projected lower levels of educational attainment. For instance, in 2013, only 22% of the college graduates were members of the Hispanic community. This pales in comparison to the 60%, 46% and 31% of Asians, Whites and African Americans respectively, who had attained college degrees (Santiago, Galdeano & Taylor, 2015). Lack of educational knowledge reinforces the cultural beliefs on health. Essentially, witchcraft and curses are reinforced above the natural causes of illnesses. This discourages the seeking of medical interventions by the Latin community. Lastly, Sumaya (1991) prevails that the importation of infectious disease from mother countries greatly enhances rates of morbidity in the Hispanic community. The Hispanic community is closely-knit hence the frequent movement of individuals from the US to their mother countries. Furthermore, in recent times there has been increased immigration of Hispanics into the US. Some of these individuals often carry infections into the US upon entry or return. Given that these individuals head back to their communities in the region, they expose the rest of the Hispanic community to the particular infection. Causes of Mortality in the Hispanic Community Many deaths in the Hispanic communities result from health concerns. To begin with, more than any other community in the US, the Hispanic community is repeatedly a victim of the Cardiovascular disease. The Cardiovascular disease refers to all health impairments that curtail the efficient functioning of the heart. The coronary heart disease (CHD) comprises one of the major cardiovascular impairments that lead to increased mortality in the Hispanic community. Hispanic individuals above the age of 65 are more likely to develop CHD (Latino Community Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Outreach Initiative, 1996). High blood cholesterol comprises one of the major factors that leads to CHD. Essentially, in the Hispanic community, 57% of the men have high levels of blood cholesterol. 44% of women from Hispanic communities have above-level cholesterols. Nonetheless, the study found there were more Hispanic women with high levels of cholesterol in their blood than Hispanic men (Latino Community Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Outreach Initiative, 1996). More than any community, and as a result of poverty, the diet that is often ingested by Hispanic children consists of saturated fat. Ingestion of saturated fat leads to diabetes. Diabetes remains a major cause of mortality in Hispanics in the US. In the year 2005, Hispanics were 1.6 times more likely to die from diabetes than any other group in the US (The State of Diabetes Among Hispanics, 2010). Furthermore, Hispanics are twice as likely to develop diabetes than the non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic females are at a greater risk to develop diabetes type 2. They are additionally at a higher risk to develop gestational diabetes than any other groups in the US (The State of Diabetes Among Hispanics, 2010). Diabetes leads to the blockage of the blood vessels. Once the blood vessels have been blocked, the flow of the blood in the body is hindered. This leads to CDH. Hypertension comprises a major threat to the life expectancy of Hispanics in the US. Hypertension is better known as high blood pressure. It occurs when there is a resistance to blood flow in the body. It causes heart attack, stroke and kidney damage in the body. Compared to women, Hispanic men are more likely to develop hypertension. This is because Hispanic men are seven times more likely to ingest large quantities of alcohol (Latino Community Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Outreach Initiative, 1996). Compared to other Hispanics, Mexican-Americans project a higher age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension. Hypertension is largely influenced by the food that is ingested and the chemicals that are introduced into the body. Furthermore, binge drinking and the ingestion of copious amounts of Alcohol encourage the development of hypertension. Cancer greatly affects members of the Hispanic community. In 2015, there were over 37,000 deaths which resulted from cancer in the Hispanic community (Siegel et al., 2015). Compared to white Americans, Hispanics project lower mortality rates as a result of cancer. However, deaths as a result of cancer during the adolescent stage is more prevalent in the Hispanic community that in the White community (Siegel et al., 2015). The major cancer cases that are prevalent among the Hispanic women are mainly breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and colorectal cancer. The probability of a Hispanic man and woman developing cancer during their lifetime stands at 42% and 39% respectively (Siegel et al., 2015). Cancer demands an early diagnosis if the victim is to be saved. However, in the Hispanic community, lack of adequate education and cultural beliefs hinder the process. Consequently, compared to any other group in the US, Hispanics are less likely to be diagnosed with cancer in its early stage. Health Behavior in the Hispanics that influence Morbidity and Mortality rates Mortality and morbidity is influenced by the health behaviors that are often engaged in the subject community. Among the Hispanics, Cancer and CHD are all consequences of behavior. Only a small percentage of these ailments have their origin in biological components. Foreign-based Hispanics have better health indicators than their counterparts who reside in the US (Rumbaut, Escarce & Morales, 2006). Some of the health behavior that influences mortality in the Hispanic community include diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and substance abuse. Firstly, Hispanics adults consume food that is made up of saturated fats, fewer carbohydrates and an equal amount of protein (Rumbaut, Escarce & Morales, 2006). Consumption of food that contains saturated fats leads to ailments such as Diabetes and Heart attacks. Poor diet in the Hispanic community is often a consequence of poor education and economic incapacitation. Acculturation influences the type of food that is consumed by the Hispanics. Highly acculturated Hispanics engaged food that was made up of fat and other unhealthy organics. Less acculturated Hispanics consumed less of food such as red meat and cheese (Rumbaut, Escarce & Morales, 2006). They instead consumed more of fruits and vegetables. Nonetheless, there are no significant disparities between Hispanics’ dietary components vis-à-vis their White counterparts. Smoking remains a major threat to the life expectancy of the Hispanics. Nonetheless, acculturated Hispanics are more likely to smoke than their immigrant counterparts. Of all the Hispanics, Puerto Ricans engage in smoking more than all the groups that make up the community. Smoking leads to CHD and diabetes. Still, in recent times there has been a reduction in the number of Hispanic individuals who engage in smoking. Among all racial groups in the US, Hispanics have lower rates of cigarette smoking (Rumbaut, Escarce & Morales, 2006). Likewise, Hispanic men and women are less likely than members of the White community to engage in alcohol consumption. Increased acculturation has a direct influence on the amount of alcohol that is consumed by a Hispanic individual. This greatly reduces the occurrences of liver problems and cancer in the body. Recommendations In order to improve the rates of mortality and morbidity in the Hispanic communities, it is necessary to engage succinct frameworks. These include: There is a need for increased sensitization of the Hispanic communities on the impacts of lifestyle inclinations on health. Healthcare services providers should be compelled to learn at least one foreign language to enhance the effectiveness of communication between them and their patients. The State health administrative bodies should work together with the education bodies to introduce health education in schools that are predominantly made up of Hispanic children. There is a need for the establishment of frameworks, which should be indoctrinated into the Hispanic communities to regulate the acculturation processes. Conclusion The Hispanic community comprises the major ethnic minority group in the US. Projections on the Hispanic community indicate that members of the community will have increased significantly in 2060. Some of the health challenges that continue to face the community include Cancer, CHD, and liver cirrhosis. When, compared to other groups in the US, health indicators in the Hispanic community project better situation. References Iannotta, J. G. (2002). Emerging Issues in Hispanic Health: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Retrieved September 5, 2016 Krogstad, J. M., & Lopez, M. H. (2015, June 25). Hispanic Community reaches record 55 million, but growth has cooled. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. (1996). Latino Community Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Outreach Initiative. Washington: U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Lopez, M. H., & Velasco, G. (2011, September 28). Childhood Poverty Among Hispanics Sets Record, Leads Nation. Retrieved September 5, 2016, from Pew Research Center: Rumbaut, R. G., Escarce, J. J., & Morales, L. S. (2006). The Health Status and Health Behaviors of Hispanics. In M. Tienda, & F. Mitchell, Hispanics and the Future of America (pp. 362-409). Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Santiago, D. A., Galdeano, E. C., & Taylor, M. (2015). The Condition of Latinos in Education. Washington, D.C.: Excelencia in Education. Siegel, R., Fedewa, S. A., Miller, K. D., Goding-Sauer, A., Pinheiro, P. S., Martinez-Tyson, D., & Jemal, A. (2015, December ). Cancer Statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2015. CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 65(6), 457-480. Sumaya, C. V. (1991). Major infectious disease causing excess morbidity in the Hispanic population. Arch International Med., 151(8), 1513-1520. The National Alliance for Hispanic Health. (2010). The State of Diabetes Among Hispanics. The National Alliance for Hispanic Health, 1-47.
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