Introduction to Health Breakdown

 Introduction to Health Breakdown
1. Explain why a booster tetanus injection was given to Vivienne. (2 Marks)
The booster tetanus injection was given to Vivienne as a prevention measure to
make sure she does not develop tetanus. It is a very serious disease, which can be life
threatening and if left without attention might lead to a lethal outcome. This condition is
caused by bacteria, which can be found in manure, soil, and dust. This way, as Vivienne
was exposed to manure before she got the cut, it is clear that the booster tetanus injection
was simply necessary in this case.
The microorganism enters the organism of a human being through the damaged
skin with cuts, puncture wounds, pinpricks, burns, and other injuries (Wassilak,
Kretsinger, 2009). When the bacteria is introduced to an individual, vegetative cells are
releasing toxins known as tetanospasm toxins that make muscles spasm uncontrollably,
causing seizures.
2. Describe the physiological basis of any three of her wound observations.
Relate your response to the case study. (6 Marks)
What Vivienne is experiencing with her general state as well as her local wound
condition is generally referred to inflammation. Inflammation is a typical process that
occurs as a response to injuries and introduction of foreign environment into the body of
a living organism. There are certain characteristic features of inflammation, which almost
always occur indicating the distinctiveness of this occurence, which include the processes
of redness, swelling, heat, and pain (Wild, Rahbarnia, Kellner, Sobotka, Eberlein, 2010;
Young). Sometimes decrease of function is also mentioned in this list, however, in
Vivienne’s case it is not necessary to pay attention to such inflammation manifestation.
The physiological basis for this reaction is vasodilation, enhanced vascular
permeability, and emigration of white blood cells. This way, due to increased vascular
perfusion relaxation of the smooth muscle that is around the terminal arterioles occurs
and leads to elevated flow of blood to the wound. As more red blood cells pass through
the tissue redness is caused as well as warmth, because blood is able to carry the heat
from the core of the body to cooler parts of it (Young; Wild, Rahbarnia, Kellner,
Sobotka, Eberlein, 2010). Swelling, on the other hand, occurs due to increase in vascular
permeability and, therefore, the build up of the fluid, which results in oedema and can be
observed as puffiness.
3. Explain how Vivienne’s fever developed and state two benefits of fever (3
Fever is a classic reaction of an organism that occurs due to introduction of
foreign antigens into the organism of a human being. In Vivienne’s case this developed
due to the booster tetanus injection, which was given to provide immunity and make the
body produce antibodies for protection. Vaccine creates an impression of infection,
however, the dose makes it possible for the antibodies to fight back successfully and
create immunity for it in the future (Launey, Nesseler, Malledant, Seguin, 2011; Young;
Elevated temperature is considered a sign of organism fighting with infection or
sickness. It is good because ferments are able to perform required functions faster and,
thus, inflammatory response is stimulated more actively (Hurt; NDRI). Microbial agent is
much easier destroyed with higher temperature, as most of them are able to do best at
normal human’s body temperature.
4. Name two most likely sources of the contamination of the wound by S.
aureus and explain how the organism was transmitted to the wound from each source. (4
S. aureus is an enterotoxin producing Gram-positive organism (Food Doctors,
2008). It quite essentially and naturally lives on humans and animals without causing any
infections or troubles. Individuals with good health carry these microorganisms in the
nose, throat, and on their hands without even thinking or sometimes knowing it. It is
practically everywhere, as S. aureus can also colonise foods, as well as food contact
surfaces (Food Doctors, 2008; Wolk, Struelens, Pancholl, Davis, Della-Latta, Fuller,
Picton, Dickenson, Denis, Johnson, Chapin, 2009).
Thus, the wound can be contaminated through hands, materials and surfaces, and
air, as well. For example, a medical professional or the patient herself may have S. aureus
while bandaging or covering the wound up (Food Doctors, 2008; Wolk, Struelens,
Pancholl, Davis, Della-Latta, Fuller, Picton, Dickenson, Denis, Johnson, Chapin, 2009).
A person can simply cough and the wound could become contaminated.
5. Explain why Augmentin is one of the appropriate drugs given to Vivienne.
(4 Marks)
Augumentin is a medication that is administered for treatment of various
infection types (Cormio, Vicino, Loizzi, Tangari, Selvaggi, 2007). It consists of
amoxicillin, a substance that is able to prevent bacteria from creating walls of cells and
beta-lactamase inhibitor or clavulanate potassium, which helps preventing amoxicillin
from being destroyed by the bacteria (Salvo, Polimeni, Moretti, Conforti, Leone, Leoni,
Motola, Dusi, Caputi, 2007). As it is clear that the patient had a high risk of obtaining 
infections it was important to prevent them with this potent drug that treats different types
of them.
6. Discuss the mode of action of Augmentin and name two common adverse
reactions of the drug. (4 Marks)
The antibacterial medication used in this case scenario obtains two very
specific compounds, which make it very appealing for individuals with different kinds
of infections. The compounds include amoxicillin, a substance that is able to prevent
bacteria from creating walls of cells and clavulanate potassium, which helps
preventing amoxicillin from being destroyed by the bacteria. Generally, side effects
that can be caused by this medication are considered to be mild and temporary. The
most common ones, however, include diarrhea and nausea (Salvo, Polimeni, Moretti,
Conforti, Leone, Leoni, Motola, Dusi, Caputi, 2007).
7. If Vivienne’s blood sample was taken for a differential blood count when
she returned to the medical centre, name two leucocytes that will be elevated and explain
why. (3 Marks)
The Blood differential test is utilized to measure the percentage of each type of
white blood cells that a patient has in his or her blood (MedlinePlus). With the help of
this test a medical professional can also find out and detect if there are any abnormal or
immature cells in the organism of an individual.
During the test the blood is taken from patient’s vein and collected into an airtight
container. A drop of blood from the sample is taken by a laboratory specialist and
smeared onto a slide of glass (WebMD). A special dye is used then to differentiate
between different types of white blood cells that can be normally found in blood. These 
types of cells include neutrophils, lymphocytes (B and T cells), monocytes, eosinophils,
and basophils.
Later, the health care provider or a computer counts the number of every single
type of cells, determines the cells’ proportion with one another, and if there exists more
or less of one cell type (MedlinePlus). Usually this type of test is introduced as a part of
the Complete Blood Count when a patient is experiencing signs and symptoms of certain
infection or inflammation (WebMD). The symptoms include: fever, chills, body aches
and pain, headaches, and so on.
In Vivienne’s case two leucocytes that would be elevated could be eosinophils
and neutrophils. This is a possibility due to the fact that quantity of neutrophils increases
as an organism’s response to acute infection and inflammation, as these cells are the most
potent ones in creating reaction towards the foreign agents (LabTestsOnline). At the same
time, eosinophils could also be increased because these cells appear to be an indication of
organism’s allergic reaction, as a respons to drug administration, inflammation of the
skin, and infection as well (LabTestsOnline). As Vivienne was administered the booster
tetanus injection it is quite possible that her organism will increase the production of
eosinophils and cooperate with the vaccine through an allergic response. This way,
elevation of white blood cell quantity means that an individual is exposed to a certain
References Augumentin Side Effects.
Food Doctors. (2008). The Food Safety File: Staphylococcus aureus.
Cormio G., Vicino M., Loizzi V., Tangari D., Selvaggi L. (2007). Antimicrobial
prophylaxis in vaginal gynecologic surgery. J Chemother 19(2), p. 193-197.
Hurt, A. Benefits of Having a Fever.
LabTestsOnline. WBC Differential.  

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