CRITICAL REFLECTION ON EARLY READING DEVELOPMENT THEORIES 

CRITICAL REFLECTION ON EARLY READING DEVELOPMENT THEORIES 
Table of Content

Introduction	2
Development Theories	2
The Bottom up methods	3
Top down theory of Reading	5
Conclusion	8
References	10

 Introduction
	Culture and history of human beings are driven by different purpose of their activities. Australian author Widdowson provides relevant linguistics information about Australian literature through involving in different process and methods. Every human uses their brain to achieve outstanding role and essential material in everyday. The thesis statement of this essay is to express critical reflection of previous reading development and different theories of English Curriculum of Australia in Queensland. The essay also discusses relevant approaches and strategies of reading and writing as well as has to reflect on applied theories in Australian English communication culture. Similarly, there are several theories and approaches to transfer different codes and sensory input to reduce complexity of language barrier by using bottom up methods. Moreover, top down methods also provide semantic data and information about English language and supply understandable meaning and expectation of new words. Furthermore, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and reporting Authority (ACAA) plays a major role for their citizen and children by investing bottom up and top down methods. 
Development Theories
	In order to develop an effective and efficient curriculum activities in English curricular activities in Queensland, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and reporting Authority takes different strategies and methods. In this essay, researcher chooses two methods of early development theories for reading and teaching to support Australian English curricular activities. Statement of Hodges et al. (2016), development activities and methods help education authority and management of Queensland to take policies and objectives for their children and education system. Two methods of development theories in Queensland are following
The Bottom up methods
	According to observations of Australian and American psychologist Paul Martin Jay S. Birnbrauer and Albert Ellis proposed that there are some difficulties in writing and translating of letters. Bottom up methods of reading and teaching in Australia is very much difficulties for their students and learner in 1950. As per the assessment of Hill (2012), there is a connection between two words when a student tries to provide speech of their writing. At that time, child educational system and teacher taught English letter first and then pronunciation to students. Thus, Australian government conduct a research about their child educational system to deduce and mitigate problems through Australian Curriculum, Assessment and reporting Authority. Organisational duty expresses application of bottom up methods in their educational system to introduce an effective and prominent model of education system. Statement of MacNaughton & Williams (2008), this model provides series of different stages in English curricular system in Queensland to input different information and autonomous activities. Similarly, this method is used in transmuting and submission of text information.
In English language systematic and symbolic representation of letters are very much important to make a word and represent its sound. According to Bottom up methods, students have to learn the reading skills and basics phonics of words to reduce complexity of reading and pronouncing of words. In 1970, Philip Gough, Australian psychologist works on the title one second of Reading to make perfect sequence of reading and techniques for words and letters.    The bottom up theories and approaches of English reading provide relevant information about reading techniques and proper pronunciation of letters to children by using appropriate policies. In reference to observation of psychologist Gough and Cosky systematic assemble of words and proper spelling techniques for the educator in base level education system. Which helps to enabled strategies and methods for higher authorities of Queensland uses blends and digraphs. In addition to this, conceptual understanding and knowledge about sound relationship is insufficient in English reading for curricular activities for their students. In order to reduce complexity in pronunciation and transparency of sounds, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and reporting Authority provide standard sound and pronunciation of English letters. As well as, comment of McLachlan & Arrow (2010), students have to learn grammatical and semantic knowledge of reading regarding ACARA guidance. Phonemic awareness has been understood with distinguishable and individual sounds. Thus listening sounds will be easy to pronounce with easy words dividing with c, a, t information to pronounce the word cat in top down order. It will be easy for pronouncing more complex word like Bergeron. For consona 


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