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Innovation in National Health Service (NHS) of the UK
Critical Appraisal of Innovation
National Health Service (NHS) in the UK was launched in 1948. It was as a result of the long-held ideal which advocated for good health care for everyone regardless of their background. Except for some charges in optical services, prescriptions, and dental services, NHS is accessible to all residents in the United Kingdom. This paper focuses on General Practitioners (GPs) and urgent and emergency care through 4Ps innovation space model.

4Ps Innovation Space Model
The model involves analysis of 4Ps which is abbreviation for Paradigm, Product, Position, and Process. The model is used to analyse how services in General Practitioners and urgent and emergency care have transformed over time and how they have enabled the creation of value in the services offered in National Health Service in the UK as shown in Appendix 1.


Urgent and emergency services product innovations have been incremental. There have been efforts to balance demand across the system. The services have given equal attention to all seven key areas that require change: transfers, hospital, urgent treatment centres, ambulance, 111 digital services, NHS 111 clinical support, and GP. Defining these seven areas has helped the NHS in concentrating on balancing the ability of each client to access critical services (NHS England 2017(a), p.1). The NHS has been working towards converting the mix of these products including walk-in centres and minor injury units where they are applicable (Dasan et al. 2014, p.15).

GP shows incremental innovation. For example, more than 1.3 million GP consultations take place every day. General practitioners have dealt with acute illnesses with more ease compared to chronic ones. GP partners have been brought on board to supplement the work done by salaried GPs (National Health Service 2017(a), p.1).


Initially, the NHS created A&E departments to serve clients with serious life-threatening conditions. The initiative shows that the innovation process has improved. Minor injury units and urgent care centres provide services to individuals with minor injuries. For instance, currently, the individuals with minor conditions are still restricted to the minor injury units (NHS England 2017(b), p.1). However, those with life-threatening conditions can be held in these facilities if there are no alternatives that can respond better to the condition.

Currently, GPs treats patients of all age ranges. Patients are usually individuals in relatively stable condition, and practitioners have an easy time establishing a healthy relation with their patients (National Health Service 2017(b), p.1). In the process, both GP and urgent and emergency care services are incremental.


Positioning of GPs has been improved regularly. For instance, they have been positioned in a manner that they are the first point of contact for individuals suffering from mental and physical problems (McDevitt and Melby 2015, p.527). Working in teams has helped in enhancing their effectiveness in these positions as they get to understand social, physical, cultural, emotional and spiritual aspects that are important in diagnosing a patient and determining the best intervention for them(National Health Service 2017(c). p.1).

The new emergency system has been modelled to respond to the seriousness of the condition by ensuring that the patients receive the most appropriate care at the right time and place showing there are some improvements (NHS England 2017(c), p.1). Improvement of New emergency system is focused on enhancing convenience of patient treatment (Marsh 2017, p.1). In terms of positioning, both GP and urgent and emergency care services are incremental.


NHS has redefined how emergency care is provided by appreciating that different groups of patients have varying needs showing improvement of paradigm. According to the National Health Service (2017, p.1), the patients who have been waiting for more than four hours has reduced. This shows that urgent and emergency services innovations in paradigm are incremental.

GP innovation in paradigm is incremental as it is becoming overwhelmed with visits and diagnoses. The interventions put in place are meant to improve the entire system (National Health Service 2017(d), p.1). NHS has set up clinics that deal with issues such as smoking cessation, child immunisations, and provision of advice on lifestyle (Hill, McMeekin and Price 2013, p.38). The increased level of paradigm innovation has been seeking to balance between diagnostic and preventive types of care.


Significant changes in GPs and Urgent and Emergency Services

Over the last five years, GPs and Urgent and Emergency Services have e 

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