Modernization 1
Concept of Modernization
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Modernization 2
Concept of Modernization
Historically, modernization was marked by the transition from the traditional agrarian
society to the modern society that is significantly based on industry and trade. The modern
society differs from the agrarian society to a great extent. Whereas the agrarian society was
vertically organized based on hierarchical class divisions, the modern society is based on
functions. Modernization is characterized by elements such as the political system, the armed
forces, the civil service, the legal system, education, religion, economy, health services,
industries, as well as the mass media.
Modernization was marked by a shift from agrarian societies that were characterized by
single and unified systems, towards modern societies that are characterized by many autonomous
systems that influence and interact with each other. The concept of modernization advocates for
societies that are heterogeneous and have multiple central powers. In addition, modern societies
are more complex as compared to agrarian societies. One salient feature about modern societies
is that their growth is dynamic and continuous. Conversely, agrarian societies were simple in
nature and static in structure.
Modernization involves economic, political, and social growths. It also involves an
increase in activities, such as technology, science, as well as political administration. This is
enhanced through factors such as specialization and division of labor, which consequently
increase output and productivity. Unlike agrarian societies where the ruling class was comprised
of warriors and priests, the modern society is dominated by the middle class. In conclusion, the
concept of modernization refers to the social transformation from traditional agricultural society
to a modern society that is characterized by industry and trade. Unlike agrarian societies, which
were simple and static in nature, modernization is a complex and dynamic process.  

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